Illustration & Speculative Futures




"Proficiency in art and illustration was once considered an essential skill for biologists, because text alone often could not suffice to describe observations of biological systems. With modern imaging technology, it is no longer necessary to illustrate what we can see by eye. " / Janet H Iwasa

The Scientist as Illustrator (2016)

" ‘Animation allows scientists to envision a hypothesis and come up with new ideas based on what they are seeing,’ says Iwasa. And isn’t that, after all, a lot like drawing pictures."/ Peta Owens-Liston

Can Scientific Animations lead to new discoveries? Janet Iwasa, PH,D., Says Next-generation visualization speeds research (2021)

Synthetic Biology

Synthetic Biology

"Rather than the traditional paradigm of considering biological weapons as weapons of mass destruction, DiEuliis highlighted that synthetic biology may be leveraged as a weapon of mass disruption." / Yong-Bee Lim

The Biotechnological Wild West: The Good, the Bad, and the Underknown of Synthetic Biology (2017)

"Genetic modification has barely been touched in the Sci-Fi genre and when it is featured, it is usually portrayed in a very negative light. I wanted to explore an alternative future where the outcome of DNA modification can be beneficial to us as well as aesthetically beautiful."/ Vasil Hnatiuk

Behold: The Future of “Synthetic Biology” (2018)

"The true horror of Resident Evil, is in the games’ parallels to real-world events. After all, zombies are entirely fictional, but government-backed scientific divisions willing to experiment on unwilling employees or citizens are not." / Kazuma Hashimoto

Resident Evil’s most unsettling theme isn’t zombies — it’s eugenics (2021)

"...what will humankind be growing in the next century? I came across a magical video that I think helps to show this. This two-minute Synthetic Biology video is a far-out vision of the future."/ John Cumbers

WATCH: This Two-Minute Synthetic Biology Video Is A Far-Out Vision Of The Future (2019)

"Are far-out animated visions of the future useful? Stanford bioengineer Drew Endy, one of the founders of the field of synthetic biology, believes such work is 'absolutely essential'...Visions of the future can inspire long before they ever have a chance of becoming true."/ John Cumbers

WATCH: This Two-Minute Synthetic Biology Video Is A Far-Out Vision Of The Future (2019)

"These images, animations and interactives allow students and the public to understand the connections between different disciplines—how study of an individual protein can give us insights into our own health and welfare. Mesoscale imagery, such as the popular ‘Inner Life of the Cell’ movie, are inspiring a new generation of scientists to explore the mesoscale mysteries of life."/ David S Goodsell, Margaret A Franzen and Tim Herman

From Atoms to Cells: Using Mesoscale Landscapes to Construct Visual Narratives. (2018)

"The history of artificial selection is a powerful thing, and human behavior is not always kind...What is a species, and what are the boundaries of that?" /Alexis Rockman

Painting The Future: Rockman Blends Reality, Fantasy (2010)

"One of the most fundamental and powerful data sets for human health is the human genome." "Genomic sequencing involves mapping the complete set, or part of individual’s DNA code. Being able to detect unwanted changes in DNA... lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions." / Daniel Heath,Elizabeth Baca and Elizabeth O'Day

The future of biotech (2020)

"By continuing to build the microbiome dataset and expand our knowledge of host-microbiome interactions, we may be able correct various states of disease and improve human health." / Elizabeth O’Day & Elizabeth Baca

The future of biotech (2020)


Baroque Biology

"Rockman’s art background is as a naturalist illustrator. He takes scientific fact or well-informed speculation regarding biological engineering and displays them in a way for everyone to see and digest. They are funny and scary at the same time."/ Arius Elvikis

The Art of Genetic Manipulation

"Baroque Biology presents a feminist science-fiction where biotechnology manifests interspecies collaboration, reproduction, theatre and storytelling as a means to re-imagine our shared biotech future. " / Jennifer Willet

Baroque Biology (2017)

"There is something horrifying about the future farm animals but there is something beguiling too. The genetically modified creatures might be meant as a warning against future dystopia...It captures some of the promise and excitement of biotech as well as the danger." / Wayne Ferrebee

The Gothic Future Vision of Alexis Rockman? (2011)

"Baroque Biology (Paper Theatre) is a series of LB Agar petri dishes containing imaginary biological vignettes where non-human organisms teach humans complex biotechnological processes."

"Like fairy tales from a biotech future, each allegory focuses on a microbe or fungi, who tries to communicate with humans in a helpful manner about the biological processes they employ for survival, for reproduction, and/or aesthetic pleasure. "

"Baroque Biology critiques institutional hierarchies by encouraging unconventional daydreaming and welcoming new models of participation in the laboratory." / Jennifer Willet

Baroque Biology (2017)

"...the ‘slippery slope’ of technology would seduce society into going places it shouldn’t. One of the key dystopian tropes involved chimeras – creatures that are a mix of more than one animal – just the sort of idea Piccinini had given form to with her ‘young family’." / Elizabeth Finkel

The art of Patricia Piccinini (2018)

"Piccinini’s body of work addresses the profound question of what it means to be human. It also explores the boundaries of human-ness – the otherness of animals, of cyber-forms, and of humans who don’t resemble ‘the norm’." / Elizabeth Finkel

The art of Patricia Piccinini (2018)

Life span


"People (myself included) have made the argument that life extension is foolish at best and immoral at worst; that a pursuit of the life eternal (or at least a life lot-longer) is downright inhuman. The world has only so many resources. If we were to add another 20 to 40 years to the lifespans of every person on Earth, it could have cataclysmic global consequence." / W. Harry Fortuna

What would life look like if we lived forever? (2018)

"Even the dead may be resuscitated if they have undergone the process of cryonics—preserving organisms at very low temperatures in glass-like states...In addition to biological strategies for eliminating death, there are a number of technological scenarios for immortality which utilize advanced brain scanning techniques, artificial intelligence, and robotics." / John Messerly

How Science Can Make Us Immortal (2016)

"By keeping your intergalactic explorers in stasis, it helps to conserve vital resources such as food and oxygen during space travel." / Stonemason


Vulnerable World / Progressive World

"Type-1 vulnerability: There is some technology which is so destructive and so easy to use that, given the semi-anarchic default condition, the actions of actors in the apocalyptic residual make civilizational devastation extremely likely." / Nick Bostrom

The Vulnerable World Hypothesis (2019)

Nuclear Power and Eco-systems

Renewable Energy

"A major environmental concern related to nuclear power is the creation of radioactive wastes such as uranium mill tailings, spent (used) reactor fuel, and other radioactive wastes." / U.S. Energy Information Administration

Nuclear power and the environment (2020)

"The intention is to change the conversation around climate change from one that focuses on the quite real, scary aspects to one that is more positive, that allows people to be inspired about the beauty of our post-carbon future." / Robert Ferry

Renewable energy art helps us design a better future (2016)

"All life on Earth and in the oceans lives with exposure to natural levels of ionizing radiation—high-frequency radiation with enough energy to change DNA. Most such genetic damage heals, but the addition of human-made radiation can make it harder for the body to repair broken genes." / Christine Dell'amore

Radiation in Japan Seas: Risk of Animal Death, Mutation? (2011)

"'Public art can contribute to the solutions we need to steer us away from the effects of climate change,' Monoian said at October’s SXSW Eco conference in Austin, Texas." / Kristine Wong

Public art projects that double as renewable energy sources (2015)

"Hesse-Honegger's paintings are intended to show visually, and thus emotionally, the effect of nuclear plants on their environment. People looking at the paintings must inevitably ask: 'If that's the effect it's having on insects, what is it doing to humans?'" / Geraldine Norman

ART MARKET / Vision of a Mutant Age: Through a series of paintings depicting deformed insect life, a Swiss artist is using her skill to emphasise the dangers to the environment of nuclear power (1993)

"Exhibitions such as last year’s ‘The Radiants’, at Bortolami Gallery in New York, has shown how visualisations of nuclear power and its associated risks have emerged from a tradition stretching back to the contact prints executed by Henri Bécquerel and Marie Curie." / James Purdon

How the nuclear age made its mark on sculpture (2016)

"...planning our cities in a more sustainable way is vital: one of the biggest and most pressing issue today is making our cities more livable, efficient and self-sufficient...Belgian architect Luc Schuiten has taken a visionary approach to rethinking cities, in a biomimetic fashion. " / Kimberley Mok

Architect's Future 'Vegetal Cities' Merge Nature With the Man-Made (Video) (2018)


"Only time will tell, and only with more people who are willing to envision and work for living, healthy "vegetal" cities attuned to nature, can they become a reality." / Kimberley Mok

Architect's Future 'Vegetal Cities' Merge Nature With the Man-Made (Video) (2018)

"The Akira manga seems to showcase the perils of a hyper-modernized nation that loses control of its super-weapons and then, catastrophically, reverts into a petty, garish reflection of its older, Imperial self." / Michael Hale

The Comics Classroom: AKIRA, a Cyberpunk Masterpiece (2019)

Gulf Futurism

"This part of the illustrations department has a lot to tell about the actual story. The point of Akira (I would dare to say) is not to design cool monsters or robots, but to show a realistic take of a world in anarchy where humans of immense power exist." / Hans Angel

Mange Review: Akira (2013)

"The future is here, it’s just not very evenly distributed." / William Gibson

"When Al-Maria and al Qadiri coin the term ‘Gulf futurism’ – a label denoting a specific brand of cultural construction, iconized in resource-demanding architecture (both structural and urban), localized within the Gulf region, and infused with an “endless naïve optimism which doesn’t exist in the west anymore." / William Gibson

Gulf Futurism (2018)

Under The Ground

Going to Space

"During the 1960s, the Cold War and prospect of nuclear weapons being deployed served as alarming inspiration for artists and writers. Plots in science fiction and artistic renderings featured post-nuclear apocalyptic universes, emulating real fears within society." / Lauren Young

"Interstellar travel and exploration is technically possible. There's no law of physics that outright forbids it." / Paul Sutter

Is Interstellar Travel Really Possible? (2020)

"...the opportunity to explore the notion of living in this entirely different environment...," / Katharine Harmon

"Newman did not detail what exactly the cities would be used for: alleviating overcrowding; alternative space in the event of nuclear war; or luxury futuristic get-away." / Lauren Young

One Architect’s Spectacular Vision for a Spherical Subterranean City (2017)

"Interstellar travel is therefore an enterprise for post-humans. They could be organic creatures (or cyborgs) who had won the battle with death, or perfected the techniques of hibernation or suspended animation. A journey lasting thousands of years is a doddle if you are near-immortal and not constrained to a human lifespan." / Martin Rees

Interstellar Travel and Post-Humans (2016)

In The Sky

"Alejandro Burdisio exchanges the past for the future almost like a child’s game: an empathic memory of a future civilization lost in the aesthetic melancholy of the first half of the twentieth century. A succession of historical ‘layers’ mirroring the economic and socio-political meanings." / Pedro Boaventura

Masters of Contemporary Fine Art - Volume 3 (2018)

"Ron Miller believes it is the space artist’s remit not only to reveal science’s discoveries to the world but also to build enthusiasm for it." / George Pendle

Space Art Propelled Scientific Exploration of the Cosmos—But Its Star is Fading Fast (2016)

Under The Sea

"...the great Russian pioneer of theoretical rocket studies Konstantin Tsiolkovsky said in 1905, ‘First, inevitably, comes the idea, the fantasy, the fairy tale. Then, scientific calculation. Ultimately, fulfillment crowns the dream.’ Illustrations and art works are an essential aid to dreaming about future space projects, and ultimately, fulfilling at least some of those dreams." / Piers Bizony

The Art of NASA: The Illustrations That Sold The Missions

"Cause the technical improvement, rising sea level, and lack of residential space, living in the deep sea become a normal way of life" / Sherry Yeh

Sherry Yeh (2017)

"In the Collier’s articles, Bonestell’s visions of space travel were painstakingly realistic and scientifically accurate, but no less jaw-dropping... Bonestell’s paintings, combined with fascinatingly detailed cut-away illustrations by Freeman and Klep showing how a space station and several spacecraft would function, made space exploration seem palpably real—as though the blueprints were ready." / Charley Parker

How Concept Art Helped Sell the U.S. Space Program (2013)


"Just four years after the last of the Collier’s space specials, the question of whether to turn any of those rocket visions into reality was becoming a matter of national importance." / Piers Bizony

The Art of NASA: The Illustrations That Sold The Missions

"Because in the vast realm of outer space, accidents happen all the time. Things bump into other things. Stars blow up. Black holes snack on anything that crosses their paths. Space rocks the size of soccer fields smash into planets. Many of these events could change or eliminate all life on a world like Earth." /David A. Aguilar

Cosmic Catastrophes: Seven Ways to Destroy a Planet Like Earth (2016)

"For the most-part, sci-fi illustrators of the period had an engendering background that helped them to develop detailed and captivating images of the socialist future. Their main concern was on futuristic technologies which would help the Soviet Union to take control of the Earth’s natural riches and resources and to build colonies on other planets." / author unknown

A Soviet vision of the future: the legacy and influence of Tekhikia – Molodezhi magazine (2017)

"Between 1988 and 2017, NASA counted over 700 fireballs created by objects entering our atmosphere." / Vox

NASA’s Plan to Save Earth from a Giant Asteroid (2017)

"Imagine what that would have looked like from the ground." / Your Discovery Science

Real Life Asteroid Impact in VR | Asteroid Day (2017)

"NASA’s imagery has had a profound impact on how we picture what’s to come, and Guidice’s illustrations have played a role... 'It’s become common culture,' Guidice offered. 'It’s become instilled in everybody’s psyche of what the future might look like.'" / Michelle Santiago Cortés

How NASA Used Art to Shape Our Vision of the Future (2019)

"The odds of a near-Earth object strike causing massive casualties and destruction of infrastructure are very small, but the potential consequences of such an event are so large it makes sense to takes the risk seriously." / John Holdren

Large Asteroid Heading to Earth? Pray, says NASA (2013)

"To depict life in space is to commit to paper one’s hopes and aspirations for humanity’s future. Though Guidice was given diagrams and isometric drawings to work from, he said that ‘there’s hundreds and hundreds of decisions to be made along the way, and each one is kind of controlled by my vision, my inspiration, and the experience I’ve had as an illustrator.’" / Michelle Santiago Cortés

How NASA Used Art to Shape Our Vision of the Future (2019)

"…If you want to think about the future of civilization, you have to include a defense plan against asteroids." / Neil deGrasse Tyson

Joe Rogan - Neil deGrasse Tyson on The Dangers of Asteroids (2018)

"Should the asteroid be blown up with a nuclear bomb?" "That would be extremely dangerous. Happily, science has moved away from the idea, because it’s far from simple. It would be hard to predict the actual consequences of fragmenting an asteroid with an explosion." / Philipp Maier

Asteroids - Threats from Cosmos | SPACETIME - Science Show (2019)

Project Eagle

"A critical role some astronomers play today is the detection of asteroids long before they get here, so that something might be done to prevent a collision. For example, if we had a few years to respond, we might send a robotic spacecraft to gently nudge the asteroid onto another course so it would miss Earth completely." / David A. Aguilar

Cosmic Catastrophes: Seven Ways to Destroy a Planet Like Earth (2016)

"Project Eagle is an interactive model of a Mars colony in Gale Crater at the base of Mount Sharp, near the original landing site of the Mars Curiosity Rover... Project Eagle is set in 2117, 44 Martian years (82.8 Earth years) after first human mission to Mars." / Blackbird Interactive

Project Eagle in Collaboration with NASA (2017)

"The project follows in the footsteps of Chesley Bonestell and Wernher von Braun, in trying to use art to bring science and space exploration into the hearts and minds of the public, and to show that dreams of colonizing other planets are possible within the next few decades rather than the next few centuries." / Blackbird Interactive

Project Eagle in Collaboration with NASA (2017)

"…Build up the base, starting with one ship. Then, multiple ships. Then, start building out the city. Then make the city bigger and even bigger." /Elon Musk

Making Life Multiplanetary (2017)

"As promised, today we have a highlight from the 2020 Olympic Games; the lunar high jump. These Games will, of course, take place on the moon." / Matt Novak

Lunar High Jump (1979) (2007)

"Space Exploration and tech is an important tool, and sometimes our only tool to address certain short-term and long-term issues. It’s the only efficient way to understand how our plant is changing. It’s the way we can bring our entire planet into the digital age. And it’s our best strategy for ensuring the survival of the human species." / Emily Calandrelli

Space Exploration is the Worst | Emily Calandrelli | TEDxIndianaUniversity (2015)

Digital Age

"The vulnerable world hypothesis thus offers a new perspective from which to evaluate the risk-benefit balance of developments towards ubiquitous surveillance or a unipolar world order."

"it would need a system of ubiquitous real-time worldwide surveillance." / Nick Bostrom

The Vulnerable World Hypothesis (2019)

Worldwide Surveillance

Artificial Intelligence

"...the purpose of AR is to add helpful (or perhaps just entertaining) digital illusions to the user’s perceptions. But AR has a second, less appreciated, facet: It also functions as a sophisticated mobile surveillance system." / Mark Pesce

Augmented Reality and the Surveillance Society (2020)

"For many of us, film brought to life our conceptions of AI, from Marvel’s JARVIS to HAL in 2001: A Space Odyssey." / Peter H. Diamandis

AI Is About to Completely Change the Face of Entertainment (2019)

"A provocative and kaleidoscopic new vision of the future." / Hyper-Reality

Hyper-Reality (2016)


"As AI converges with VR and crashes into democratized digital platforms, we will soon witness the rise of everything from edu-tainment, to interactive game-based storytelling, to immersive worlds, to AI characters and plot lines created on-demand, anywhere, for anyone, at almost zero cost." / Peter H. Diamandis

AI Is About to Completely Change the Face of Entertainment (2019)


"As AI technology evolves, the emergence of the ‘virtual radiologist’ could become a reality. These innovations will replace time-intensive data gathering with more cost-effective analytic approaches to clinical decision-making." / Emporiko Corporation, Andrew Steinberg, Elizabeth Baca & Elizabeth O’Day

Artificial Intelligence Will Change the World by 2050 (2017)

"A job hiring bot might decide it likes a particular candidate, but be entirely unable to tell a human why. And that opens the door to all kinds of biases and assumptions – if an AI has been ‘trained’ on the wrong data set, watch out!" / Christian Zilles

AI Will Determine If You Get Your Next Job, and That’s a Bad Thing (2020)

"Elon Musk believes and has for years warned that AGI is humanity’s biggest existential threat. Efforts to bring it about, he has said, are like summoning the demon." / Mike Thomas

Is AGI really an existential threat to humanity? (2019)


"USC experts say the self-learning and automation capabilities enabled by AI can protect data more systematically and affordably, keeping people safer from terrorism or even smaller-scale identity theft." / Katharine Gammon

Artificial Intelligence Will Change the World by 2050 (2017)




"What we envision today with creations such as Elon Musk’s Neuralink implant was a concept already suggested by the anime in the 90s, including philosophical and technological argumentation." / Lidia Zuin

Resistance is futile: at 100, James Lovelock defends a cyborg future (2021)

"Ghost in the Shell is an evolutionary leap into the future of human-machine interfacing, and since being first serialised in 1989 as a manga, still stands out as one of the most iconic science-fiction/cyberpunk films ever created. "

"Science fiction writers, particularly the cyberpunk authors who inspired ‘Ghost in the Shell’, have been dramatizing the risks of versions of this idea for decades." / Ed Finn

Can coding the brain save or destroy us? (2017)

"Her body is a composite of organic tissue and machinery complete with enhanced senses, strength, and reflexes."

"Ghost In The Shell was uniquely concerned with the possible meaning of technology’s effect on human evolution... no other animated movie has rendered those ideas on the screen to such a thought-provoking and intelligent degree." / Ryan Lambie

What Ghost in the Shell Got Right About the Future (2018)

"To be both female and strong instantly violates traditional codes of feminine identity. Although there is a cancelling out in the significance of a body’s sexual specificity, it is how these bodies demonstrate their sexual specificity in the first place is questionable." / Kate Mcilwee

Welcome to the world of cyberfeminism (2019)

"Lain uses an array of hallucinatory visual and editing devices to stitch together a dizzying collage of images...Its prophesies about the implications of online culture may seem with hindsight striking in their accuracy, but they were by no means uniquely original observations at the time." / Ian Martin

98 Degrees: Serial Experiments Lain (2018)

"Serial Experiments Lain does exactly that, with a psychedelic and supremely interesting visual style. There’s an abundance of washed out lighting, electronic imagery, and visual effects reminiscent of corrupted data." / Noah Gassas

Serial Experiments Lain: a Cult-Classic Sci-fi Masterpiece (2020)

"Alita is radically free from biological determinism in the way that only a cyborg can be...She is not her body, she is not even her brain. Alita is her memories and her relationships, her actions and her choices." / Sajarina

Battle Angel Alita and cyborg feminism (2016)


"The genre isn’t in any way new—but after the roaring success of Black Panther (2018), it’s an essential imaginary to highlight nonetheless." / Jay Owens

Nine sci-fi subgenres to help you understand the future (2018)

"Afrofuturism provides a whole new center of gravity for speculative fiction, away from the white Anglocentrism of traditional sci-fi and much cyberpunk. It can be broadly described as the notion that 'there are black people in the future.'" / Taylor Crumpton

Afrofuturism Has Always Looked Forward (2020)

"Afrofuturism evaluates the past and future to create better conditions for the present generation of Black people through the use of technology, often presented through art, music, and literature. " / Taylor Crumpton

Afrofuturism Has Always Looked Forward (2020)

"Bird in Hand seems to evoke the mythical Drexciya or Black Atlantis, a fictional underwater world populated by a marine species descended from drowned slaves." / Tate Modern

Bird in Hand 2006 (2006)

"The science fiction subgenre known for its utopian and liberation themes has become a vehicle for Black women artists." / Jonita Davis

How Black Women Are Reshaping Afrofuturism (2020)

"The group’s animated music video for 'Sleepless Nights' is Afrofuturistic. Washington is also working on a graphic novel that draws from this aesthetic." / Sounds of Crenshaw

Dinner Party - Sleepless Nights (feat. Phoelix) (2020)

"Afrofuturism continues to live on and be reinvented through twenty-first century writers and musicians such as Solange, Janelle Monae, Lupe Fiasco, and others. We see it in films such as Black Panther. Afrofuturism is currently dominating the media and continuing to open up young children to endless ways to interpret and change our Black history through the past and future." / Grinnell College


"'Syzygy,' by the artist Lina Iris Viktor, who paints queenly self-portraits with a futuristic edge. Credit…" / Ruth La Ferla

Afrofuturism: The Next Generation

Cyber Punk / Solar Punk

"Syd Mead’s futuristic style will allow Cyberpunk to be seen on the big screen for the first time... It is thanks to him that Blade Runner will become so iconic with the passing of time, this pressing atmosphere that we already feel in his illustrations transcribes perfectly this futuristic world." / Julien Djoubri

Syd Mead – Creator Of Future Worlds (2020)

"He is able to include a strange level of mystery and intrigue to the illustration. Anything that lends mystery and curiosity to a piece of art makes it more interesting. An unlikely picture of a probable scenario in the future lures the observer in...Mead is a master at taking tradition and forcing it into a future scenario to project to the viewer a sense of reality." / Kendall Schroder

Syd Mead: A Future Elaborately Imagined (2019)

"But what I want to see is Solarpunk – a plausible near-future Sci-Fi genre, which I like to imagine as based on updated Art Nouveau, Victorian, and Edwardian aesthetics, combined with a green and renewable energy movement to create a world."

"A balance of sustainable energy-powered tech, environmental cities, and wicked cool aesthetics." / @missolivialouise

Land of Masks and Jewels (2014)

"The world I am presenting is a result of symbiotic relationship between organisms that we could help evolve and grow to provide us with structural support, shelter, a framework for our living and working spaces without destroying them in the process like we have been doing for centuries." / Aleksander Novak-Zemplinski,

5:45 to Santa Monica: now boarding! / Aleksander Novak-Zemplinski (2008)

"I read a comment about Teikoku Shônen (aka Imperial Boy) some time ago: ‘I simply love.. So much so, that it breaks my heart a bit to know that I'll never live in such beautiful places’. " / Carl Cassegard

Teikoku shônen - art nouveau punk? (2011)

"Dystopias are seemingly everywhere these days. Whether it’s books, movies, TV, graphic novels, video games… whatever your storytelling medium of choice, the world is falling apart. Generally, these dystopias take the form of oppressive, all-powerful governments running roughshod over their inhabitants, making their lives a living hell for unknown diabolical purposes. But what if government control took a different form? " / J.Brandon Lowry

Blissed Out in Fantasy Land (2018)

"In other words, I feel that the nightmare of Nineteen Eighty-Four is destined to modulate into the nightmare of a world having more resemblance to that which I imagined in Brave New World. The change will be brought about as a result of a felt need for increased efficiency. Meanwhile, of course, there may be a large-scale biological and atomic war --- in which case we shall have nightmares of other and scarcely imaginable kinds." / George Orwell

1984 v. Brave New World (1949)

Body Modification

"In cyberpunk 2077, aside from equipping your character with the game’s best futuristic weaponry, there are a number of ways that you can increase both your body’s survivability and enhance its combat abilities through prosthetics." / James Busby

Cyberpunk 2077: Every piece of Cyberware and what they do (2020)

Mantis Blades – These blades are fitted to your forearms and allow for some incredibly lethal melee attacks.

Blood pump – This device is inserted into the body to help improve the healing process.

Cyberpunk 2077: Every piece of Cyberware and what they do (2020)

Titanium Bones – A mod that increases the player character’s carrying capacity by 20%.

Cyberpunk 2077: Every piece of Cyberware and what they do (2020)


"After the 1980s, Western cyberpunk narratives began to reveal the West's anxiety and fear of the rising Eastern civilization. The East Asian culture that often appears in cyberpunk is often set as ‘other’ different from the mainstream culture and appears as a social threat and villain. For example, the story background of the game ‘Cyberpunk 2077’ is adapted from the 1990 cyberpunk board game ‘Cyberpunk 2020’. The Arasaka Company and Tiger Claw Gang that often appear in it reflect the Americans' attitude towards Japan in the early 1990s." / Ding Ye

The Oriental Origin of Cyberpunk (2021)

"...Finally, one aspect that reinforces the notion of Asian characters in the game as the “other” may actually be the most inconspicuous: the main character, V. The game’s extensive character customization is impressive. However, even if you create the most Asian-looking person you can through the customization tools, there are elements of racialization that are inescapable… " / George Yang

Orientalism, Cyberpunk 2077, and Yellow Peril in Science Fiction (2020)

"The film implies that Akira takes Tetsuo to a certain alternate dimension, he created his own dimension...The Olympic stadium is traditionally regarded as a symbol of Japan's incredible revival after the war. Its destruction seems to symbolize the refusal of all Western forces." / WISECRACK

Hidden Meaning in Akira (2015)

"After the Second World War ....We see American culture constantly provocative, showing off their own talent, on the contrary, in Japanese culture, although the output of changeable symbols, the essence is repressed at heart."

"Like Takashi Murakami’s work, it is also the product of a mixture of eastern and western cultures, ranging from the violent tendencies of Westerners to the loveliness and even naivety of Orientals. " / Erde Meng

Why Do Cyberpunk Works Often Contain Elements of East Asian culture? (2017)

"...In fact, to define the cultural output of Eastern and Western cultures, it is most appropriate to describe it as hybridity. We only see Eastern and Hong Kong elements frequently appearing in Western science fiction movies, but we don’t know that the fantasy of the Western world is also infiltrating the Eastern soil." / Nianci Yu

The oriental appeal behind cyberpunk (2017)